Fondazione Pinocchio – Carlo Collodi

Works by Carlo Lorenzini

Carlo Lorenzini aka Carlo Collodi did not write only The Adventures of Pinocchio. Below is a chronological list of his other works with title, place and date of their first edition:

Gli amici di casa (Firenze, Riva 1856)

It is a play in two acts. It was published for the first time in June 1856 and again in 1858, after having circulated in manuscript form and been discussed since December 1953. It was inspired by an episode that took place in the Florentine family of the Pucci counts, which caused the suspension of the play when it was already being staged. It was criticised for not adhering completely to the canons of the drama. On the basis of such criticisms, Collodi published a revised version in 1862.

Un romanzo in vapore. Da Firenze a Livorno. Guida storico-umoristica (Firenze, G. Mariani, 1856)

A small handbook which was published in published in September to be sold to travellers on the Leopolda Railway, which connected Florence to Leghorn. It is a deliberately chaotic parody that interweaves a discursive and tangled narration on the model of the feuilleton, with useful or curious information for the traveller about the various places along the railway line.

I misteri di Firenze. Scene sociali (Firenze, Fioretti, 1857)

[The Mysteries of Florence] It was published in instalments from October on, heralded by press reviews and praised for a style which was described as “lively, spontaneous and often satirical”. This novel did not, however, continue beyond its first volume: in the book Collodi himself declared that it was impossible to write  “mysteries” in Florence, since everyone knew everything about everyone else. The work mixes a parody of the “mystery” genre in the manner of Eugene Sue (Les Mystères de Paris) with a harsh criticism of the moral and political decadence of Florentine society.

Il sig. Albèri ha ragione! ... Dialogo apologetico (Firenze, Tipografia Galileiana, 1859);

[Mr Albèri is right!… An apologetic dialogue] A satirical pamphlet which was written on commission from the circle of Baron Bettino Ricasoli, in response to the pamphlet La politica napoleonica e quella del governo toscano [The policy of Napoleon and the policy of the Tuscan government] by the Catholic federalist Eugenio Albèri. The latter supported the establishment of a Kingdom of Central Italy, which was in line with the wishes of Napoleon III, who meant to assign it to Gerolamo Bonaparte. At the time, Lorenzini was the political commentator for the Florentine newspaper “La Nazione”.

La manifattura delle porcellane di Doccia. Cenni illustrativi raccolti da C.L. (Firenze, Grazzini Giannini e C., 1861)

[The factory of porcelain in Doccia. A short description] A brochure which was probably written on request from his brother Paolo, who was managing director of the Ginori porcelain factory. The brochure was published on the occasion of the 1861 y. Italian Exhibition in Florence. The scheme is the same as that of a similar work which had been written 20 years earlier by Albèri, yet it also features a convinced eulogy, which was pioneering in Italy at the time, of the policy of industrial and social progress implemented by the Ginori counts, who had set up both an elementary school and a vocational training institute as well as a mutual aid association for the workers and their families.

I racconti delle fate, voltati in italiano da C. Collodi (Firenze, Paggi, 1876)

[The tales of the Fairies. Translated into Italian] It is the first work for children by Carlo Lorenzini. To them he would devote most of his work in the following years. These translations were commissioned by the publisher Felice Paggi, whose series “Biblioteca Scolastica” [School Library] was meant to provide a wide range of titles in good “Tuscan” to the schools of the newborn united Italy. This book also shows the first collaboration – which later became regular in the books for children – between Carlo Collodi and Enrico Mazzanti, a Florentine construction engineer who lent himself to “illustration” and provides here a series of pictures.

Giannettino (Firenze, Paggi, 1877)

The first actual schoolbook written by Collodi. It was a complete reworking of Giannetto (1837) by L.A. Parravicini, which had then won a competition which made its dissemination easier throughout the country, but had by then grown old-fashioned. While preserving the then typical mix of narration and educational concepts, Lorenzini deply innovated the style, in terms both of the use of language and the humorous approach to the adventures of Giannettino. This one is a young scallywag that the schoolchildren could easily identify with. The success of the book started an entire series, including Minuzzolo, named after one of Giannettino’s young friends, already present in the first book. Certain reviewers even considered the latter book  better than its predecessor. Several books in the series were very successful, and continued to be used in the schools, with amendments and updates, right up to the end of the 1920s, and then as reading books only up to the 60s. The Giannettino series ended with La lanterna magica di Giannettino [Giannettino’s magic lantern]. This one took its cue from the middle-class entertainment then fashionable, which was the precursor of the cinema, to range over arguments of science, geography and history – particularly the recent history of the Risorgimento, as the period of struggles and war of Italy for independence and unity is called – in an anecdotal style.

Macchiette (Milano, Brigola, 1880)

[Sketches]. A collection of narrative writings and sketches, written and revised over the previous decades, which was published by one of the most prestigious Italian publishing houses at the time. It was not particularly popular because of the humorous and paradoxical slant, which was far removed from the literary realism then in vogue. It was however reprinted in a revised and amended edition by Paggi, the Florentine publishing house – of a more provincial scope than Brigola – with which Collodi collaborated by now on a regular basis.

Il viaggio per l'Italia di Giannettino. Parte prima (L'Italia superiore) (Firenze, Paggi, 1880)

[Giannettino’s travel through Italy. Part 1: Northern Italy]. See Giannettino

Occhi e nasi. Ricordi dal vero (Firenze, Paggi, 1881)

[Eyes and noses]. A new collection of writings which were previously published in various spheres, then brought together and reworked for this volume which launched the “Biblioteca ricreativa” [Entertaining Library] series aimed at adult readers. While meeting with acclaim, Collodi’s tendency towards humour and caricature was once again criticised, being judged excessive according to the current naturalistic canons.

La grammatica di Giannettino per le scuole elementari (Firenze, Paggi, 1883)

[Giannettino’s grammar book for primary schools]. See Giannettino

Il viaggio per l'Italia di Giannettino. Parte seconda (l'Italia centrale) (Firenze, Paggi, 1883)

[Giannettino’s travel through Italy. Part 2: Central Italy]. See Giannettino

Il regalo del Capo d'Anno (Torino, Paravia, 1884)

[The gift on New Year’s Eve]. A lavish Christmas book illustrated by Enrico Mazzanti. It was reprinted with the title Il regalo istruttivo [The educational gift] in 1887. For the benefit of children it showed the habits and customs of “exotic” people, each of them connected to a month of the year: Lapps, Siamese, Patagonians etc.

L'abbaco di Giannettino per le scuole elementari (Firenze, Paggi, 1884)

[Giannettino’s abacus for primary schools]. See Giannettino

Libro di lezioni per la seconda classe elementare (Firenze, Paggi, 1885)

[Book of lessons for the 2nd form]. See Giannettino

Un'antipatia (Roma, Perino, 1885)

[A dislike]. Reprint of a story under the same titlewhich had already been published in Macchiette [Sketches]: here, not coincidentally for the series “Biblioteca umoristica” [Humourous Library].

La geografia di Giannettino (Firenze, Paggi, 1886)

[Giannettino’s Geography book]. See Giannettino

Il viaggio per l'Italia di Giannettino. Parte terza (l'Italia meridionale) (Firenze, Paggi, 1886)

[Giannettino’s travel through Italy. Part 3: Southern Italy]. See Giannettino

Storie allegre (Firenze, Paggi, 1887)

[Merry tales]. A collection of short stories published at various times in the “Giornale per i bambini”; outstanding among them is Pipì, o lo scimmiottino color di rosa, a long and articulated sort of self-deprecating sequel to the Adventures of Pinocchio. In a review to the book, Collodi is described as the most brilliant writer among those active in the new sphere of children’s literature in Italy. It was frequently reprinted even in the 20th century, although generally with fewer stories than the original edition and the 19th-century reprints.

Libro di lezioni per la terza classe elementare (Firenze, Paggi, 1889)

[Book of lessons for the 3rd form]. See Giannettino.

La lanterna magica di Giannettino (Firenze, Bemporad, 1890)

[Giannettino’s magic lantern]. See Giannettino.

Divagazioni critico-umoristiche, raccolte e ordinate da Giuseppe Rigutini (postumo, Firenze, Bemporad, 1892)

[Critical-humorous digressions (posthumous)]. A collection – like the next one Note gaie [Cheerful notes] – of previously published texts and articles which were collected and revised – at times significantly – by Giuseppe Rigatini, a philologist and close friend of Collodi on commission from Collodi’s brother Paolo Lorenzini.

Note gaie, raccolte e ordinate da Giuseppe Rigutini (postumo, Firenze, Bemporad, 1892)

[Cheerful notes]. The second posthumous colelction of texts and articles by Carlo Collodi, edited by Giuseppe Rigutini.

Bettino Ricasoli, Camillo Cavour, Luigi Carlo Farini, Daniele Manin. Biografie del Risorgimento (postumo, Firenze, Marzocco, 1941)

[Biographies from the Risorgimento era]. A collection of occasional writings on some of the major exponents of the Risorgimento. They were collected and printed on the occasion of the Florentine tribute to Carlo Collodi, and they should bear witness to his passion for politics. Yet the scholar Daniela Marcheschi has suggested – after providing an analysis based on historical and philological features as well as on content and style – that such biographies are not actually a work by Collodi.

I ragazzi grandi. Bozzetti e studi dal vero, a cura di Daniela Marcheschi; con una nota di Carlo Alberto Madrignani (Palermo, Sellerio, 1989)

[Grown-up children], A reprint of the novel which was published in 2 instalments as a feuilleton in the magazine “Fanfulla” in 1873. In turn the novel is an adaptation from theplay with the same title, which was staged in Florence in that same year.

Cronache dall'Ottocento, a cura di Daniela Marcheschi

[Chronicles from the 19th century. Edited by Daniela Marcheschi]. A collection of never-reprinted-before newspaper articles, published by Carlo Lorenzini under various pseudonyms in the humorous periodicals of the time.

To find an extended bibliography of Carlo Collodi’s works (including those ones which were published in periodicals) we recommend to consult:

– Edizione Nazionale delle Opere di Carlo Lorenzini, Pescia-Firenze, 2009 and follow. Vols. 1-4 already pubblished (by 2015 y.);

– Collodi giornalista e scrittore, Riccardo Maini and Piero Scapecchi eds. Firenze, S.P.E.S. 1981

Carlo Collodi, Opere, Daniela Marcheschi ed. Milano, Mondadori 1995, coll. I Meridiani

For Carlo Collodi’s life:

– Renato Bertacchini, Il padre di Pinocchio, Milano, Camunia, 1993

– Cronologia, in: Carlo Collodi, Opere, Daniela Marcheschi ed. Milano, Mondadori 1995

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